Summary of Environmental Law in Mexico

Back to main page of the Summary of Environmental Law in North America database

chapter:  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

25 Transboundary and International Issues

 

Compare the topic 25 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Top of page Top of page


25.1 Adoption of Treaties, Treaties in Domestic Law

 

Compare the topic 25.1 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.1 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Article 133 of the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States (hereinafter Mexican Constitution) states that the Constitution, together with the federal laws and treaties signed by the President and ratified by the Senate, are the supreme law of the union. The Senate approves treaties by a simple majority vote. Therefore, international treaties make part of domestic law, meaning that they are directly applicable in environmental legal disputes before the relevant federal, state and municipal authorities and courts.

Top of page Top of page


25.10 Agreements Relating to Other Transboundary and International Issues

 

Compare the topic 25.10 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.10 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Top of page Top of page


25.10.1 Multilateral Agreements

 

Compare the topic 25.10.1 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.10.1 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water. This treaty was ratified by Mexico on 27 December 1963. It entered into force on the same day and was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 25 February 1964.

Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Mexico ratified this treaty on 21 January 1969. It entered into force on 5 March 1970 and was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 17 October 1969. Mexico's accession to the Treaty was accompanied by a declaration stating that nothing in Article 7 of the Treaty affected its rights and obligations under the Treaty of Tlatelolco (which prohibits nuclear weapons in Latin America). It also asserted that, in the event that nuclear explosives, different from nuclear weapons, were to be developed in the future, the treaty should be amended so as to include such explosives.

Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials. Mexico signed this Convention on 4 April 1988; it came into force on 4 May of that same year. It was initially published in the Federal Official Gazette on 14 June 1988 and was later published with corrections on 31 October 1988.

Treaty on the Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and other Celestial Bodies. Mexico ratified this treaty on 31 January 1968. It entered into force on the same day and was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 10 May 1968.

Top of page Top of page


25.10.2 Regional or Hemispheric Agreements

 

Compare the topic 25.10.2 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.10.2 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (Tratado para la Prohibición de Armas Nucleares en América Latina - Treaty of Tlatelolco). This treaty was ratified by Mexico on 20 September 1967. It entered into force on 22 April 1968 and was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 16 December 1967.

Cooperation Agreement about Traffic Control of Wildlife Species of Flora and Fauna. Albuquerque, 19 November 1987.

Cooperation Agreement about Research, Studies and Scientific Collection of Wildlife and Aquatic Flora and Fauna. Albuquerque, 19 November 1987.

Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in Management and Protection of National Parks and Other Protected Natural and Cultural Heritage Sites, with annex (Mexico-U.S). This agreement was signed in Mexico City and Washington D.C., on 30 November 1988 and 24 January 1989.

Resolution of the XVIII Meeting of the Joint Committee for Wild Flora and Fauna. Mexico, 3 June 1989.

Accord that Establishes the Joint Committee for the Conservation of Wildlife. Clairmont, 5 December 1984.

Top of page Top of page


25.10.3 Bilateral or Trilateral Agreements Between the Parties

 

Compare the topic 25.10.3 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.10.3 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Agreement on Cooperation for the Protection and Improvement of the Environment in the Border Area (La Paz Agreement) (Mexico-U.S.). This Agreement was signed in La Paz, Baja California Norte, on 14 August 1983. It came into force on 16 February 1984 and was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 22 March 1984. The La Paz Agreement defines the border area as a 100-kilometer wide zone on either side of the political boundary. It establishes a general framework for the prevention, reduction, and elimination of sources of air, water, and soil pollution. Task forces in the areas of enforcement, wastewater, emergency response and planning and pollution prevention were also created under the Agreement. In 1990, in response to a United States-Mexico presidential agreement, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Mexico's Secretariat of Urban Development and Ecology (Secretaría de Desarrollo Urbano y Ecología (SEDUE)), developed a comprehensive environmental plan for the border region. The plan, known as the Integrated Border Environmental Plan, was released in February 1992. In October 1993, the two countries published a Progress Report on U.S.-Mexico Activities as Outlined in the IBEP for the Mexican-U.S. Border Area. See Chapter 25.9.3 for a description of Annexes I, II and III of the La Paz Agreement relating to hazardous substances and wastes, and Chapter 25.5.3 for further details on Annexes IV and V of the La Paz Agreement regarding pollution matters.

Agreement Concerning the Establishment of a Border Environment Cooperation Commission and a North American Development Bank, with Annexes. This Agreement was signed on 16 and 18 November 1993 in Washington, D.C. and Mexico City. It came into force on 1 January, 1994.

Agreement for the Exchange of Technical Information and Cooperation in Nuclear Safety Matters (Mexico-U.S.). Exchange of letters in Mexico City and Washington D.C. on 30 July and 15 October 1980. The implementing procedures were signed in Bethesda, Maryland on 8 April 1981 and were subsequently replaced by implementing procedures signed in Rockville and Mexico on 8 September and 6 October 1989.

Agreement in the Area of Nuclear Reactor Safety Research (Mexico-U.S.). This agreement was signed in Bethesda, Maryland and Mexico City on 27 May and 2 June 1987.

Mexico-Canada Initiatives:

Rehabilitation the Mexican Industrial Corridor Coatzacoalcos-Minatitlan, in the State of Veracruz -first phase.

Use and Preservation of the Chapala Lake, in the State of Jalisco.

Study regarding the quality of water and the reproduction rate of migratory birds in the State of Chiapas.

Inventory of Aquatic Migratory Birds who live in wetlands along the Mexican Pacific Coast.

Study About Birds in the Mexican Coasts; making of an Atlas about the Coastal Bird Population and their Critical Habitats.

Study and Observation of the White Goose that breeds in Canada and emigrates to the northern states of Mexico during winter.

In 1992, the Canadian Government granted SEDESOL one million Canadian dollars in order for SEDESOL to oversee and enforce Mexican environmental laws and regulations. On March 27, 1992, both countries entered into the aforementioned Contribution Agreement for the purpose of developing 21 environmental projects dealing with professional training and technology transfer. In a second phase, in March 1993, a new agreement was published for another grant of one million Canadian dollars to be shared by INE, the Office of the Federal Attorney General for Environmental Protection (Procuraduría Federal de Protección al Ambiente (PROFEPA)) and the National Water Commission (Comisión Nacional del Agua (CNA)).

Mexico and Canada have undertaken certain cooperative actions with regard to energy, such as the signing of the Energy Cooperation Agreement of 2002, the Declaration of Intent regarding climate change and joint enforcement.

Model Forest Program. The Government of Canada granted three million Canadian dollars to be used by the Mexican Agricultural Secretariat in Chihuahua and Campeche.

Top of page Top of page


25.11 Extraterritorial Regulation

 

Compare the topic 25.11 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.11 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Top of page Top of page


25.2 Membership in Global Institutions

 

Compare the topic 25.2 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.2 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Top of page Top of page


25.2.1 United Nations

 

Compare the topic 25.2.1 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.2.1 of Mexico with the one of United-States



United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). Mexico participated in the United Nations (hereinafter UN) Conference on the Environment and Development (hereinafter Rio Summit) held in 1992 and in the UNEP Administrative Council sessions in Nairobi, Kenya in 1993. In addition, Mexico supports the framework known as Agenda 21 that was established at the Rio Summit for the purpose of achieving sustainable development through the enactment and enforcement of domestic environmental laws. To this end Mexico has taken steps to control ozone-depleting substances and regulate transboundary shipments of hazardous waste; training programs were established and information on toxic wastes was being disseminated; procedures aimed at preventing the contamination of the Caribbean Basin by municipal and industrial wastes also have been implemented. One of the actions undertaken by the Secretariat of the Environment and Natural Resources (Secretaría del Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (SEMARNAT )) with UNEP is the agreement for the Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean (ROLAC), aimed at jointly undertaking community education and awareness projects for the conservation of biodiversity and the sustainable use of Mexico's forests.

United Nations Development Program (UNDP). UNDP works with SEMARNAT to design, execute and assess its environmental programme, through the active participation of civil society organizations. It also supports the furtherance of its international environmental commitments and those assumed in the respective agreements and protocols, launching and implementing programs with international funding.

United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (UNCSD). Mexico has been an active member of this Commission which was established at the Rio Summit. In 1994, Mexico presented the commission with a report dealing with the compliance measures it had taken in 1993.

Top of page Top of page


25.2.2 World Bank

 

Compare the topic 25.2.2 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.2.2 of Mexico with the one of United-States



World Bank.

Global Environmental Facility (GEF). Mexico ratified its participation in this fund granting mechanism (which was restructured and became GEF II) in March 1994. Mexico has taken the position that the facility should not support environmental problems in an isolated manner but rather should consider integrated ways to promote development while protecting the environment.

Mexico requested USD25 million from the facility to support biodiversity conservation programs in ten wildlife reservations which constitute the most important ecosystems of the country. These include the Monarch Butterfly Sanctuary; the Rio Lagartos Wildlife Refuge which protects the largest nesting population of flamingos in North America, and the Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve, 1.3 million acres set aside to preserve tropical forests, savannas, mangroves and 70 miles of coral reefs. Mexico will use the funds to establish basic infrastructure, integrate conservation patterns into the cultural and economic life of surrounding communities and create financing mechanisms for the long-term preservation and development of an ecological tourism pilot project in the state of Quintana Roo.

It should be noted that Mexico has received GEF funds for major projects, including biodiversity projects in indigenous communities and the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor.

Top of page Top of page


25.2.3 World Trade Organization

 

Compare the topic 25.2.3 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.2.3 of Mexico with the one of United-States



World Trade Organization (WTO). Mexico's membership became effective in August 1986 and was ratified by the Senate on 9 October 1986. The Protocol of Mexico's Accession to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which later became the WTO, was initially published in the Federal Official Gazette (Diario Oficial de la FederaciĆ³n) on 26 November 1986. It was published anew, with corrections, on 28 November 1986.

Top of page Top of page


25.2.4 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

 

Compare the topic 25.2.4 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.2.4 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). In 1992, Mexico participated as an observer in several meetings of the Environmental Policy Committee of the OECD. In 1993 Mexico submitted a position paper to the organization's Environmental Policy Committee, which included a chapter on environmental issues prepared by the Secretariat of Social Development (Secretaría de Desarrollo Social (SEDESOL)), the National Institute of Ecology (Instituto Nacional de Ecología (INE)) and various other government agencies, industrial associations and domestic research institutes. The document showed that Mexico's commitment to environmental preservation was an integral part of its incorporation into the OECD. After a positive review by the Committee, Mexico joined the OECD on 14 April 1994.

Top of page Top of page


25.3 General Agreements Relating to the Protection of the Environment

 

Compare the topic 25.3 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.3 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Top of page Top of page


25.3.1 Multilateral Agreements

 

Compare the topic 25.3.1 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.3.1 of Mexico with the one of United-States



The Río Declaration (whose official name is the U.N. Declaration on Environment and Development) was signed by Mexico at the Rio Summit in 1992. Since this Declaration is a non-binding set of guidelines and principles it did not require ratification by the Senate.

Several principles of the Declaration were already embodied in Mexican environmental laws. The principle asserting that in order for sustainable development to be accomplished environmental protection must be integrated into the development process is found in paragraph, Article 15 of the Ecology Law, which provides that the responsibility towards achieving ecological balance encompasses present conditions as well as those that will determine the quality of life of future generations. The fifth principle of the Rio Declaration's asserts that all states and persons should cooperate in the eradication of poverty as a sine qua non condition for sustainable development. One of the main objectives of SEMARNAT is to develop programs based on a fair distribution of the costs and benefits derived from the Nation's economic resources for the purpose of assisting lower income groups, while preserving Mexican natural resources. Acting on these principles, in December 1994 a new environmental protection secretariat was formed, with the goal to undertake the transition towards sustainable development. This should affect decisions regarding the use of natural resources, the types of development programs to be pursued and the processes and technologies to be developed.

The Stockholm Declaration. This document (whose formal name is the Declaration of the U.N. Conference on the Human Environment) was signed by Mexico at the UN conference on the Human Environment in 1972. It did not require Senate ratification because of its nature as a non-binding set of guidelines. The Declaration's principle asserting that Nations have the sovereign right to exploit their own natural resources in accordance with their own environmental policies, while ensuring that activities carried out within their jurisdiction or under their control do not harm the environment of other Nations (Principle 21) is reflected under Article 15, paragraph XVII of the Ecology Law.

Top of page Top of page


25.3.2 Regional or Hemispheric Agreements

 

Compare the topic 25.3.2 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.3.2 of Mexico with the one of United-States



NAFTA Side Agreements. On 14 September 1993 the governments of Canada, Mexico and the United States signed the NAFTA Side Agreements for Environmental and Labor Cooperation. These Agreements came into force along with NAFTA on January 1, 1994. The Environmental Cooperation Side Agreement (North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation or NAAEC) recognizes the need to increase support for environmental coordination and cooperation among the three countries. It establishes the general obligations to which each party is committed and confirms the right of each country to establish its own policies, priorities and levels of environmental protection. The NAAEC created the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) to carry out these functions. CEC is composed of a Council, a Joint Public Advisory Committee (JPAC) and a Secretariat. Under the NAAEC each country is authorized to establish national advisory committees. Mexico has created one national advisory committee and four regional advisory committees. The decision was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 21 April 1995.

The BECC and NADBank. The Agreement between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the United Mexican States Concerning the Establishment of a Border Environment Cooperation Commission and a North American Development Bank, signed on 18 November 1993, establishes the U.S.-Mexico Border Environmental Cooperation Commission (BECC) and the North American Development Bank (NADBank). The BECC will evaluate and certify proposed infrastructure projects along the U.S.-Mexico border.

North American Fund for Environmental Cooperation (NAFEC). This fund was created under the auspices of NAAEC in 1996, by the governments of Mexico, Canada and the United States. It is intended to fund community projects that promote the furtherance of CEC goals.

Trilateral Memorandum of Understanding on Environmental Education. This memorandum between Canada, Mexico and the United States was signed on September 17, 1992 for the purpose of promoting, developing, coordinating and creating joint educational and environmental training, as well as for the purpose of exchanging information that would improve environmental protection, the quality of life and public awareness, with the aim at promoting sustainable development in each one of the three countries.

Mexico, Canada, U.S. Trinational Committee. This Committee, represented by SEMARNAT , the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Canadian Wildlife Service, was created for the purpose of developing strategies for the conservation, protection and management of aquatic migratory birds and their habitats.

Central American Commission on the Environment and Development. In 1991 Mexico was invited by the Central American presidents to participate, in the capacity as an observer, in meetings of the Central American Commission on the Environment and Development (Comisión Centroamericana sobre el Medio Ambiente y el Desarrollo). This led to the signing of a Cooperation Accord Regarding Environmental Matters (Acuerdo sobre Cooperación en Materia Ambiental) between the Mexican Government (acting through SEDESOL and the Commission. The Accord aims at promoting cooperation in the areas of sustainable environmental development strategies and the optimal use of regional resources. It also provides for exchange visits by Central American and Mexican scientists for the purpose of studying environmental management and technical support.

Organization of American States. On May 29, 1990, Mexico and the Organization of American States (OAS) signed the Accord on Technical Cooperation for the Initiation of Ecological Projects in Geographical Regions with Priority Activities. The project is intended at establishing regulations governing Ecological Zoning in selected regions whose primary economic activities are concerned with tourism and fishing, making proposals for obtaining funding from national and international credit institutions and strengthening institutions. Each year Mexico participates in a variety of seminars and meetings of environmental committees within the framework of the OAS.

Free Trade Agreement between Mexico and the European Community and its Member States. This agreement was signed on 23 and 24 February 2000, at Brussels, Belgium and Lisbon, Portugal. It entered into force on 1 October 2000.

Top of page Top of page


25.3.3 Bilateral or Trilateral Agreements Between the Parties

 

Compare the topic 25.3.3 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.3.3 of Mexico with the one of United-States



The Environmental Cooperation Agreement Between the Government of the United Mexican States and the Government of Canada. This agreement was adopted in Mexico City on March 16, 1990. It came into force on September 21, 1990 and was published in the Federal Official Gazette on January 28, 1991.

Top of page Top of page


25.4 Agreements Relating to International Rivers and Lakes

 

Compare the topic 25.4 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.4 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Top of page Top of page


25.4.1 Multilateral Agreements

 

Compare the topic 25.4.1 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.4.1 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Top of page Top of page


25.4.2 Regional or Hemispheric Agreements

 

Compare the topic 25.4.2 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.4.2 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Top of page Top of page


25.4.3 Bilateral or Trilateral Agreements Between the Parties

 

Compare the topic 25.4.3 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.4.3 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Convention to Avoid the Difficulties Occasioned by Reason of the Changes which took place in the Beds of the Rio Grande and the Colorado River. This convention was signed in Washington D.C. on 1 March 1889. It came into force on 24 December 1890 and was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 21 January 1891. The Convention created the International Boundary Commission (IBC).

Treaty Relating to the Utilization of Waters of the Colorado and Tijuana Rivers and of the Rio Grande, the 1944 Water Utilization Treaty. Signed on 3 February 1944 this Treaty came into force on 8 November 1945. The treaty was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 30 March 1946. The Treaty created the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC) which replaced the International Boundary Commission. The IBWC has primary responsibility for border water sanitation projects and the coordination of transboundary water issues.

Convention Providing for the Equitable Distribution of the Waters of the Rio Grande for Irrigation Purposes. This Convention was signed in Washington DC, on 21 May 1906 and came into force on 16 January 1907. It was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 2 February 1907.

Convention for the Rectification of the Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) in the El Paso-Juarez Valley. This convention was signed in Mexico City, on 1 February 1933 and came into force on 10 November 1933. It was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 20 January 1934.

Agreement to Proceed with the Construction of Amistad Dam on the Rio Grande to Form Part of the System of International Storage Dams Provided for by the Water Treaty of 3 February 1944. This Agreement was signed by Mexico on 24 October 1960, entering into force on the same day. It was not published in the Federal Official Gazette.

Agreement Approving Minute 242 of the IBWC setting Forth a Permanent and Definitive Solution to the International Problem of the Salinity of the Colorado River. Exchange of notes in Mexico on 30 August 1973.

Minute 261 of the IBWC concerning Recommendations for the Solution to the Border Sanitation Problems. Signed in El Paso, Texas, on 24 September 1979.

Minute 264 of the IBWC: Recommendations for the Solution to the Border Sanitation Problems at Calexico, California and Mexicali, Baja California Norte. Signed in Ciudad Juarez, on 26 August 1980.

Minute 270 of the IBWC: Recommendations Concerning Border Sanitation Problems at San Diego, California and Tijuana, Baja California. Signed in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, on 30 April 1985.

Minute 273 of the IBWC: Recommendations for the Solution of the Border Sanitation Problem at Naco, Arizona, and Naco, Sonora. Signed in El Paso, Texas, on 19 March 1987.

Minute 274 of the IBWC: Joint Project for Improvement of the Quality of Waters of the New River at Calexico, California and Mexicali, Baja California, with joint report. Signed in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua on 15 April 1987.

Agreement Concerning Rediversion of Rio Grande Waters Allocated to Mexico Under the Convention of 1906. Exchange of Notes concluded in Mexico on 24 June and 10 November 1987

Minute 276 of the IBWC: Conveyance, Treatment and Disposal of Sewage from Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora Exceeding the Capacities Allocated to the United States and Mexico at the Nogales International Sewage Treatment Plant Under Minute 227, with joint report. Signed in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, on 26 July 1988.

Minute 279 of the IBWC: Joint Measures to Improve the Quality of the Waters of the Rio Grande at Laredo, Texas and Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, with joint report. Signed in Laredo and Nuevo Laredo on 28 August 1989.

Agreement of Cooperation to Finance the Necessary Works for the Solution of the Border Problem of the Cleaning at the Bravo River in the Nuevo Laredo Area/Laredo. Adopted in Mexico City, on 7 August 1989. The Agreement entered into force on the same day.

Minute 283 of the IBWC: Conceptual Plan for the International Solution to the Border Sanitation Problem in San Diego, California and Tijuana, Baja California. Signed in El Paso, Texas on 2 July 1990.

Minute 290 of the IBWC: Replacement of the International Cordova-Bridge of the Americas over the Rio Grande at El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. Signed in Ciudad Juarez on 21 September 1993.

Agreement about the Joint Solution, Treatment and Disposal of Residual Waters in the City of Tijuana. It was signed in Washington, DC on 8 August 1990 and entered into force on the same day.

Agreement on Cooperation for the Protection and Improvement of the Environment in the Border Area (La Paz Agreement) (Mexico-U.S.). Signed in La Paz, Baja California Norte, on 14 August 1983, this Agreement entered into force on 16 February 1984. It was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 22 March 1984. The La Paz Agreement establishes a general framework for the prevention, reduction and elimination of sources of air, water and soil pollution. See Chapter 25.10.3. for a more detailed description of the Treaty and its annexes.

Top of page Top of page


25.5 Agreements Relating to Atmospheric or Air Pollution

 

Compare the topic 25.5 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.5 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Top of page Top of page


25.5.1 Multilateral Agreements

 

Compare the topic 25.5.1 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.5.1 of Mexico with the one of United-States



U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change. This Convention was signed by Mexico at the Rio Summit on 13 July 1992. It was ratified by the Mexican Senate on 3 December 1992. To date, Mexico has taken several steps to meet its obligations under the Convention. In 1992, Mexico completed its preliminary survey of greenhouse gases using the methodology of the OECD Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, with 1988 as the base year (the Mexican scientific community, however, disagreed with certain aspects of the methodology, specially those regarding emission factors and their relation to Mexico's climate). The survey was carried out by the National Commission for Energy Conservation (Comisión Nacional para el Ahorro de Energía (CONAE)). Mexico implemented an intense reforestation program with the aim at planting 100 million trees over a period of six years. In addition, SEDESOL entered into an agreement whereby the Federal Electricity Commission (Comisión Federal de Electricidad (CFE)), a decentralized state-controlled entity coordinated by the Energy Secretariat (Secretaría de Energía (SENER)), will reforest additional areas for the purpose of counteracting future emissions caused by the combustion of fossil fuels used in the generation of thermoelectric power. Mexico has been an active member of the Intergovernmental Committee for the Negotiation of a Framework Convention on Climate Change, from its very beginning.

Kyoto Protocol. Mexico signed the Kyoto Protocol on 24 November 2000, under the Promulgation Decree of the of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change signed at Kyoto on 11 December 1997.

Vienna Convention on the Protection of the Ozone Layer. Mexico signed the Convention on 14 September 1987; it entered into force on 22 September 1988. The Convention was published initially in the Federal Official Gazette on 22 December 1987 and later republished with corrections on 17 March 1988. In order to meet its obligation under this treaty, Mexico established the above-mentioned National Program on Climate Change.

Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. Mexico acceded to this Protocol on 31 March 1988. It came into force on 1 January 1989 and was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 12 February 1990.

Top of page Top of page


25.5.2 Regional or Hemispheric Agreements

 

Compare the topic 25.5.2 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.5.2 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Top of page Top of page


25.5.3 Bilateral or Trilateral Agreements Between Parties

 

Compare the topic 25.5.3 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.5.3 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Agreement on Cooperation for the Protection and Improvement of the Environment in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (Mexico - U.S.). Signed in Washington, DC on 3 October 1989, this Agreement entered into force on 22 August 1990 and was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 25 January 1991.

Memorandum of Understanding for the Exchange of Technical Information and for Cooperation in the Field of Air Quality Research (Mexico-United States). This Memorandum was signed in Washington, D.C. on 19 July 1990.

Agreement on Cooperation for the Protection and Improvement of the Environment in the Border Area (La Paz Agreement) (Mexico-United States). Signed in La Paz, Baja California Norte, on 14 August 1983, this Agreement entered into force on 16 February 1984. It was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 22 March 1984. The La Paz Agreement establishes a general framework for the prevention, reduction, and elimination of sources of air, water and soil pollution. See Chapter 25.10.3. for a more detailed description of the Treaty and its Annexes.

Annex IV of the La Paz Agreement: Agreement of Cooperation Regarding Transboundary Air Pollution Caused by Copper Smelters along their Border. This Agreement was signed in Washington, D.C., on 29 January 1987 and came into force on the same day. It was not published in the Federal Official Gazette. In February 1989, a bilateral field study in the El Paso-Juarez area was conducted for the purpose of identifying the areas with the highest sulfur dioxide concentration. The results were used to determine the proper placement of air monitors. SEDESOL and EPA exchanged emissions data from smelters in order to ensure compliance with the agreement.

Annex V of the la Paz Agreement: Agreement of Cooperation Regarding International Transport of Urban Air Pollution, with Appendix. This Agreement was signed in Washington D.C., on 3 October 1989. In December 1989 a bilateral field study was undertaken in the El Paso-Juarez area and in June 1990 a monitoring network for air quality assurance in Juarez was set up. In September 1990, the U.S. and Mexico launched a joint survey intended at measuring the emission reduction and maintenance characteristics of Juarez motor vehicles. A meteorological field study was conducted in El Paso-Juarez for the purpose of determining pollution sources. Modeling techniques for the airshed were completed in November 1991. Binational courses related to technology transfer have covered environmental monitoring, dispersion modeling, release inventories, data quality assurance, air quality and meteorology and the evaluation of combustion techniques.

Top of page Top of page


25.6 Agreements Relating to Marine Pollution and Species Conservation

 

Compare the topic 25.6 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.6 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Top of page Top of page


25.6.1 Multilateral Agreements

 

Compare the topic 25.6.1 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.6.1 of Mexico with the one of United-States



U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea (Montego). Mexico ratified this Convention on 18 March 1983 and published it in the Federal Official Gazette on 1 June 1983.

Convention for the Regulation of Whaling. This treaty was ratified by the Mexican Senate on 13 March 1932 and entered into force on 11 June 1933. It was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 10 November 1933.

International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling with Schedule of Whaling Regulations. Mexico acceded to this convention on 30 June 1949. It entered into force on the same day and was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 6 December 1949.

Protocol to the Convention for the Regulation of Whaling. This protocol was ratified by Mexico on 9 March 1959 and came into force on 4 May 1959. It was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 9 April 1959.

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil. Mexico ratified this Convention on 10 May 1956; however, it did not enter into force until 26 July 1958. It was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 20 July 1956 and again on 15 October 1956 with corrections.

Modifications to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil. (London, 21 October 1969). Modifications were ratified by Mexico on 31 January 1977 and entered into force on 20 January 1978. They were published in the Federal Official Gazette on 9 March 1977.

Convention on the Continental Shelf. Mexico acceded to the Convention in August 1966. It entered into force on 1 September 1966 and was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 16 December 1966.

Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the High Seas. Mexico signed this convention on August 2, 1966. It came into force on 1 September 1966 and was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 22 October 1966.

Convention on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone. Mexico acceded to this convention on 2 August 1966 - with reservations. It entered into force on 1 September 1966 and was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 22 February 1967. The reservations concerned article 21, subsection C (Rules Applicable to Boats Owned by the State that are Not Used for War Purposes); to paragraphs 1, 2, and 3 of article 19; and to paragraphs 1 and 3 of article 20, subsection b (Rules Applicable to Commercial Boats). The Mexican government considers that boats belonging to the State are granted immunity, whatever their use. The following countries have raised objections in regard to the reservation formulated by Mexico: Australia, Denmark, the U.S., Great Britain, Japan, the Netherlands, Portugal and Thailand.

International Convention Relating to Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Oil Pollution Casualties. Mexico acceded to this convention on 8 April 1976. It entered into force on 7 July 1976 and was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 25 May 1976.

Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Seabed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil. Mexico signed this treaty on 23 March 1984. It entered into force on the same day and was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 8 May 1984. In its declaration, Mexico stated its position that no provision of the Treaty could give any state the right to place nuclear weapons or other weapons of mass destruction on Mexico's continental shelf. The Mexican government reserved the right to verify, inspect, remove or destroy any weapon, structure, infrastructure or military equipment placed on its continental shelf, including nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction. While Mexico would have preferred a treaty clearly banning the placement of such weapons in any physical space, it acceded to this treaty relating to the ocean floor because it represented a step towards the universal prohibition of nuclear zones worldwide.

Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter. Mexico ratified this convention on 7 April 1975. It entered into force on 30 August 1975 and was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 16 July 1975.

Protocol Relating to Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Pollution by Substances Other than Oil. Mexico ratified this protocol on 11 April 1980. It was initially published in the Federal Official Gazette on 19 May 1980 and was published again, with corrections, on 1 August 1980. It did not enter into force until 13 March 1983.

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973 (MARPOL). Mexico acceded to this convention on 23 April 1972. It was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 8 July 1992.

Protocol of 1978 Relating to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973. This protocol was ratified on April 22, 1992 and entered into force on 23 July 1992. It was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 8 July 1992.

Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region and Protocol Concerning Cooperation in Combating Oil Spills in the Wider Caribbean Region. These treaties were ratified, with reservations, by the Mexican Senate on 11 February 1985. Both treaties were subsequently published in the Federal Official Gazette on 25 April 1988.

Covenant that creates the Tuna Oriental Pacific Organization. Place and date of adoption: Lima, Peru 21 July 1989. The Covenant was ratified on 9 July 1990 and published in the Federal Official Gazette on 24 January 1991.

Top of page Top of page


25.6.2 Regional or Hemispheric agreements

 

Compare the topic 25.6.2 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.6.2 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Top of page Top of page


25.6.3 Bilateral or Trilateral Agreements Between Parties

 

Compare the topic 25.6.3 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.6.3 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Agreement of Cooperation Regarding Pollution of the Marine Environment by Discharges of Hydrocarbons and other Hazardous Substances, with Annexes (Mexico-U.S.). Signed in Mexico City on 24 July 1980, this Agreement entered into force on 30 March 1981. It was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 18 May 1981 and again on 5 August 1981.

Top of page Top of page


25.7 Agreements Relating to the Arctic

 

Compare the topic 25.7 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.7 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Mexico has not entered into any agreement relating to the Arctic

Top of page Top of page


25.7.1 Multilateral Agreements

 

Compare the topic 25.7.1 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.7.1 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Top of page Top of page


25.7.2 Regional or Hemispheric Agreements

 

Compare the topic 25.7.2 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.7.2 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Top of page Top of page


25.7.3 Bilateral or Trilateral Agreements

 

Compare the topic 25.7.3 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.7.3 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Top of page Top of page


25.8 Agreements Relating to the Protection of Flora and Fauna

 

Compare the topic 25.8 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.8 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Top of page Top of page


25.8.1 Multilateral Agreements

 

Compare the topic 25.8.1 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.8.1 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Convention on Biological Diversity. Mexico signed the Convention on 13 June 1992. It was ratified by the Mexican Senate on 3 December 1992. In Geneva, Mexico offered to host the Intergovernmental Composition Open Meeting of Scientific Experts on Biological Diversity, which took place in Mexico City under the auspices of the National Commission for the Understanding and Use of Biodiversity (Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad (CONABIO)). The work of the committee led to the establishment of international cooperation priorities, which were subsequently approved at the June 1994 meeting in Nairobi, Kenya.

Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Mexico signed the Convention on 2 July 1991. It entered into force on 30 September 1991 and was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 6 March 1992.

Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat. This Convention took place in Ramsar, Iran, on 2 February 1971. Mexico signed it on 4 July 1986 and caused it to be published in the Federal Official Gazette on 29 August 1986.

Protocol which modifies the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Specially as Habitat for Aquatic Birds. This protocol was adopted in Paris, France, on 3 December 1982. Mexico acceded to the Protocol on 4 July 1986 and published it in the Federal Official Gazette on 29 April 1986. It was not until 1 October 1986, however, that the Protocol entered into force.

Agreement on the International Dolphin Conservation Program (U.S. Depositary). This agreement was adopted in Washington, D.C. on 21 May 1998, entering into force on 15 February 1999. It was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 17 May 1999.

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Adopted 29 January 2000 in Montreal, Canada, it was signed by Mexico on 24 May 2000.

Top of page Top of page


25.8.2 Regional or Hemispheric Agreements

 

Compare the topic 25.8.2 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.8.2 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Convention on Nature Protection and Wildlife Preservation in the Western Hemisphere. This Convention was ratified by Mexico on 27 March 1942. It came into force on 1 May 1942 and was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 29 May 1942.

Inter-American Convention for the Protection and Conservation of Sea Turtles. This Convention, aimed to promote the protection, conservation and recovery of sea turtle populations and their habitats, entered into force on 2 May 2001. Mexico signed the Convention on 19 December 1998 and ratified it on 28 April 1999.

Top of page Top of page


25.8.3 Bilateral or Trilateral Agreements Between the Parties

 

Compare the topic 25.8.3 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.8.3 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Animals (Mexico-U.S.). This Convention was signed in Mexico City, on 7 February 1936 and entered into force on 15 March 1937. It was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 15 May 1937. This convention was later modified by the Agreement Supplementing the Convention of 7 February 1936 for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Animals (Mexico-U.S.). 23 UST 260; TIAS 7302.

Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in Management and Protection of National Parks and Other Protected Natural and Cultural Heritage Sites, with annex (Mexico-U.S). This agreement was signed in Mexico City and Washington D.C., on 30 November 1988 and 24 January 1989.

Protocol between the Government of the United Mexican States and the Government of the United States of America to Modify the Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Animals (Mexico-U.S.). The protocol was signed 5 May 1997 and entered into force on 30 December 1999.

Top of page Top of page


25.9 Agreements Relating to the Management of Wastes

 

Compare the topic 25.9 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.9 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Top of page Top of page


25.9.1 Multilateral Agreements

 

Compare the topic 25.9.1 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.9.1 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal. Mexico ratified this Convention on 22 February 1991. It entered into force on 5 May 1992 and was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 9 August 1991.

Top of page Top of page


25.9.2 Regional or Hemispheric Agreements

 

Compare the topic 25.9.2 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.9.2 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Top of page Top of page


25.9.3 Bilateral or Trilateral Agreements Between the Parties

 

Compare the topic 25.9.3 of Mexico with the one of Canada  You are currently analyzing mexican documentation  Compare the topic 25.9.3 of Mexico with the one of United-States



Agreement on Cooperation for the Protection and Improvement of the Environment in the Border Area (La Paz Agreement) (Mexico-U.S.). Signed in La Paz, Baja California Norte, on 14 August 1983, this Agreement came into force on 16 February 1984. It was published in the Federal Official Gazette on 22 March 1984. The La Paz Agreement establishes a general framework for the prevention, reduction, and elimination of sources of air, water, and soil pollution. See Chapter 25.10.3. for a more detailed description of this Treaty.

Annex I of the La Paz Agreement: Agreement of Cooperation for Solution of the Border Sanitation Problem at San Diego, California and Tijuana, Baja California. Signed in San Diego, California on July 18, 1985, this agreement entered into force on the same day. However, it was not published in the Federal Official Gazette.

Annex II of the la Paz Agreement: Agreement of Cooperation Regarding Pollution of the Environment along the Inland International Boundary by Discharges of Hazardous Substances, with Appendices. Signed in San Diego, California, on 18 July 1985, this Agreement entered into force on 29 November 1985. It was never published in the Federal Official Gazette.

Agreement Modifying the Agreement of Cooperation Regarding Pollution of the Environment along the Inland International Boundary by Discharges of Hazardous Substances (18 July 1985), Annex II of the Agreement on Cooperation for the Protection and Improvement of the Environment in the Border Area (14 August 1983) (Mexico-U.S.). This agreement entered into force on 4 June 1999.

Annex III of the La Paz Agreement: Agreement of Cooperation Regarding the Transboundary Shipments of Hazardous Wastes and Hazardous Substances. Signed in Washington D.C., on 12 November 1986, this Agreement entered into force on 29 January 1987. It was not published in the Federal Official Gazette.

Top of page Top of page






 
2003